|The Crafoord Prize|
|Awarded for||in astronomy and mathematics, biosciences, geosciences or polyarthritis research, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences|
|Presented by||Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences|
The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. Administered by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the prize is awarded in four categories: astronomy and mathematics; geosciences; biosciences, with particular emphasis on ecology; and polyarthritis, the disease from which Holger severely suffered in his last years. According to the Academy, "these disciplines are chosen so as to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded". Only one award is given each year, according to a rotating scheme – astronomy and mathematics; then geosciences; then biosciences. A Crafoord Prize in polyarthritis is only awarded when a special committee decides that substantial progress in the field has been made. The recipient of the Crafoord Prize is announced each year in mid-January; on Crafoord Day in April, the prize is presented by the King of Sweden, who also presents the Nobel Prizes at the ceremony in December. The prize money, which as of 2015 is 6,000,000 kr (or US$700,000), is intended to fund further research by the laureate.
The inaugural laureates, Vladimir Arnold and Louis Nirenberg, were cited by the Academy for their work in the field of non-linear differential equations. The first woman to be awarded the prize was astronomer Andrea Ghez in 2012.
|1982||Mathematics||Vladimir Arnold||Russian||Theory of non-linear differential equations|
|Louis Nirenberg||Canadian American[A]|
|1983||Geosciences||—||Edward Norton Lorenz||American||Geophysical hydrodynamics|
|1984||Biosciences||Daniel H. Janzen||American||Co-evolution|
|1985||Astronomy||Lyman Spitzer||American||Studies of the interstellar medium|
|1986||Geosciences||Claude Allègre||French||Isotope geochemical relations|
|—||Gerald J. Wasserburg||American|
|1987||Biosciences||—||Eugene Odum||American||Ecosystem ecology|
|Howard T. Odum||American|
|1988||Mathematics||Pierre Deligne||Belgian||Algebraic geometry|
|1989||Geosciences||James Van Allen||American||Exploration of space, the discovery of the Van Allen belts|
|1990||Biosciences||Paul R. Ehrlich||American||Dynamics and genetics of fragmented populations|
|E. O. Wilson||American||Theory of island biogeography|
|1991||Astronomy||—||Allan Sandage||American||Study of galaxies|
|1992||Geosciences||—||Adolf Seilacher||German||Research into evolution of life|
|1993||Biosciences||—||W. D. Hamilton||British||Theories of kin selection and genetic relationship|
|Seymour Benzer||American||Genetical and neurophysiological studies of fruit flies|
|1994||Mathematics||Simon Donaldson||British||Four-dimensional geometry|
|Shing-Tung Yau||American[C]||Non-linear techniques in differential geometry|
|1995||Geosciences||—||Willi Dansgaard||Danish||Development of isotope geological analysis methods|
|1996||Biosciences||Robert May||Australian||Ecological research|
|1997||Astronomy||Fred Hoyle||British||Study of nuclear processes in stars, stellar evolution|
|—||Edwin Ernest Salpeter||American|
|1998||Geosciences||Don L. Anderson||American||Study of the structures and processes in the interior of the Earth|
|—||Adam M. Dziewonski||American[D]|
|1999||Biosciences||Ernst Mayr||American||Developing the concept of evolutionary biology|
|John Maynard Smith||British|
|—||George C. Williams||American|
|2000||Polyarthritis||—||Marc Feldmann||British||Definition of TNF-alpha|
|Ravinder N. Maini||British|
|2001||Mathematics||Alain Connes||French||Theory of operator algebras, founder of the non-commutative geometry|
|2002||Geosciences||—||Dan McKenzie||British||Dynamics of the lithosphere|
|2003||Biosciences||Carl Woese||American||Third domain of life|
|2004||Polyarthritis||—||Eugene C. Butcher||American||Study of molecular mechanisms concerning white blood cells|
|—||Timothy A. Springer||American|
|2005||Astronomy||James E. Gunn||American||Understanding the large-scale structure of the Universe|
|2006||Geosciences||Wallace Smith Broecker||American||Research into the global carbon cycle|
|2007||Biosciences||—||Robert Trivers||American||Analysis of social evolution|
|2008||Astronomy||Rashid Alievich Sunyaev||Russian||Contributions to high-energy astrophysics and cosmology|
|Mathematics||Maxim Kontsevich||Russian[E]||Contributions to mathematics from modern theoretical physics|
|2009||Polyarthritis||Charles Dinarello||American||Isolation of interleukins, understanding their role in the onset of inflammatory diseases|
|2010||Geosciences||Walter Munk||American||"for his pioneering and fundamental contributions to our understanding of ocean circulation, tides and waves, and their role in the Earth's dynamics".|
|2011||Biosciences||Ilkka Hanski||Finnish||"for his pioneering studies on how spatial variation affects the dynamics of animal and plant populations".|
|2012||Astronomy||Reinhard Genzel||German||"for their observations of the stars orbiting the galactic centre, indicating the presence of a supermassive black hole".|
|Andrea M. Ghez||American|
|Mathematics||Jean Bourgain||Belgian||"for their brilliant and groundbreaking work in harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, ergodic theory, number theory, combinatorics, functional analysis and theoretical computer science".|
|Terence Tao||Australian American|
|2013||Polyarthritis||Peter K. Gregersen||American||"for their discoveries concerning the role of different genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis".|
|Robert J. Winchester||American|
|2014||Geosciences||—||Peter Molnar||American||"for his ground-breaking contribution to the understanding of global tectonics, in particular the deformation of continents and the structure and evolution of mountain ranges, as well as the impact of tectonic processes on ocean-atmosphere circulation and climate".|
|2015||Biosciences||—||Richard Lewontin||American||"for their pioneering analyses and fundamental contributions to the understanding of genetic polymorphism".|
|2016||Astronomy||Roy Kerr||New Zealand||"for fundamental work concerning rotating black holes and their astrophysical consequences"|
|Mathematics||Yakov Eliashberg||Russian||"for the development of contact and symplectic topology and groundbreaking discoveries of rigidity and flexibility phenomena"|
a Nirenberg was born in Canada.
b Grothendieck was born in Germany, but spent most of his life in France and was legally stateless. He declined his prize.
c Shing-Tung Yau was born in China.
d Dziewonski was born in Poland.
e Kontsevich was born in Russia.
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