Marekani

United States of America
Muungano wa Madola ya Amerika
Bendera Nembo
Kaulimbiu ya taifa: E Pluribus Unum
(kiasili "Moja kutoka wengi")
In God We Trust
(rasmi tangu 1956 "Twamtegemea Mungu")
Wimbo wa taifa: "The Star-Spangled Banner"
("Bendera ya nyota")
Mji mkuu Washington DC
38°53 N 77°02 W
Mji mkubwa nchini New York
Lugha rasmi Kiingereza
hali halisi, si kisheria
Serikali Shirikisho la Jamhuri
Barack Obama
Uhuru
- Matangazo ya uhuru
- Mkataba wa Paris (1783)
Kutoka Uingereza
4 Julai 1776
3 Septemba 1783
Eneo
 - Jumla
 - Maji (%)
 
9,631,420 km² (ya 31)
4.87
Idadi ya watu
 - 2012 kadirio
 - 2000 sensa
 - Msongamano wa watu
 
313,349,000 (ya 3)
281,421,906
31/km² (ya 172)
Fedha United States dollar ($) (USD)
Saa za eneo
 - Kiangazi (DST)
(UTC-5 to -10)
(UTC-4 to -10)
Intaneti TLD .us .gov .edu .mil .um
Kodi ya simu +1

Muungano wa Madola ya Amerika (kwa Kiingereza: United States of America), inajulikana pia kama Marekani (kwa Kiingereza: United States, US, USA au America), ni nchi inayopakana na Kanada na Meksiko katika Amerika ya Kaskazini, mbali ya kuundwa pia na visiwa vya Hawaii.

Mji mkuu wa Marekani ni Washington DC.

Eneo

Marekani bara

Picha kutoka angani ikionyesha majimbo 48 ya Marekani yanayopakana

Eneo la Marekani lina ukubwa wa kilometa mraba 9,826,675 na liko hasa katika bara la Amerika Kaskazini kati ya Kanada upande wa kaskazini na Meksiko upande wa kusini.

Marekani imeunganisha upana wote wa bara kutoka Bahari ya Atlantiki hadi Pasifiki, ikigawanywa kwa majimbo 48 yanayojitawala.

Eneo hilo lagawiwa katikati na mto mkubwa Mississippi unaoanza mpakani kwa Kanada na kuishia katika Ghuba ya Meksiko.

Alaska

Jimbo la Alaska liko pia kwenye bara la Amerika Kaskazini upande wa kaskazini kutoka Kanada kuelekea Urusi, lakini halipakani na jimbo lolote la Marekani.

Hawaii

Funguvisiwa ya Hawaii ni jimbo la visiwani katika bahari ya Pasifiki. Ni jimbo la 50 na la mwisho mpaka sasa.

Visiwa vya ng'ambo vya Marekani

Maeneo ya ng'ambo ya Marekani ni visiwa kadhaa ambavyo ni maeneo ya Kimarekani ingawa si sehemu ya jimbo lolote. Zamani yalikuwa kama makoloni hata kama Marekani ilidai kutokuwa na ukoloni. Siku hizi maeneo haya yamepata viwango mbalimbali vya kujitawala. Kwa kawaida maeneo haya huchagua pia wawakilishi kwa ajili ya bunge la Marekani lakini wawakilishi hao si wabunge wa kawaida, bali wana haki ya kusema na kushauri tu bila haki ya kupiga kura.

Visiwa muhimu kati ya hivyo ni kama ifuatavyo:

Mito ya Marekani

Baadhi ya mito ya Marekani ni:

Historia

Uenezi wa nchi hatua kwa hatua.

Nchi ilianza kama mkusanyiko wa makoloni ya Uingereza kwenye pwani ya mashariki ya Amerika ya Kaskazini tangu karne ya 17. Walowezi kutoka Uingereza walijipatia ardhi wakipigana na wenyeji Waindio.

Katika vita ya uhuru wa Marekani makoloni yalipata uhuru wao uliotangazwa mwaka 1776 na kukubaliwa na Uingereza baada ya vita mwaka 1783.

Baadaye Marekani ilipanua eneo lake hadi bahari ya Pasifiki ikatwaa ardhi ya Maindio wazalendo, ikapokea wahamiaji wengi kutoka nchi zote za Ulaya pamoja na watumwa walioletwa kutoka Afrika.

Tangu karne ya 19 wahamiaji walifika pia kutoka Asia, hasa China na Japani.

Katika vita na Hispania na Meksiko Marekani ilipanua eneo lake kwenda kusini.

Vita vya wenyewe kwa wenyewe nchini Marekani vilipigwa kuanzia 1861 hadi 1865 kati ya majimbo ya kusini na majimbo ya kaskazini nchini Marekani. Sababu mojawapo muhimu ya vita ilikuwa suala la utumwa. Majimbo ya kaskazini yaliwahi kupiga utumwa marufuku lakini majimbo ya kusini yaliendelea na sheria zilizoruhusu utumwa na matajiri wengi wa kusini walitegemea kazi ya watumwa. Vita vilikuwa virefu na watu 650.000 walikufa, lakini mwishoni kaskazini ilishinda.

Watu

Nchi ina wakazi zaidi ya milioni 320, na ina mchanganyiko mkubwa kuliko nyingine zote duniani.

Lugha

Ingawa Muungano hauna lugha rasmi, majimbo yake mengi yanaipa hadhi hiyo lugha ya Kiingereza, iliyo lugha ya kwanza kwa asilimia 80 ya wakazi.

Wakazi wengine wanatumia lugha nyingine nyingi, hasa kulingana na nchi ya asili ya ukoo wao. Kati ya lugha hizo, inaongoza kwa mbali ile ya Kihispania (12%).

Dini

Nchini dini zote zina uhuru mkubwa, tena kwa asilimia 59 ya wakazi dini ina umuhimu wa hali ya juu, tofauti na nchi tajiri nyingine duniani.

Asilimia 78.4 hivi ya wakazi wanafuata Ukristo katika mojawapo ya madhehebu yake, hasa ya Uprotestanti (51.3%), ingawa ile kubwa zaidi ni Kanisa Katoliki (23.9%).

Dini nyingine zina asilimia 4.7, na kati yake inaongoza ile ya Uyahudi (1.7%).

Waja

Tazama pia

Marejeo

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Viungo vya nje

Serikali
Historia
Ramani
Vingine
Makala hii kuhusu maeneo ya Marekani bado ni mbegu.
Je unajua kitu kuhusu Marekani kama historia yake, biashara, taasisi zilizopo, watu au utamaduni?
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Majimbo na maeneo ya Marekani
Majimbo ya Marekani
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Mkoa wa Mji Mkuu
Mkoa wa Columbia (Washington D.C.)
Visiwa vya ng'ambo
Katika Pasifiki: Samoa ya Marekani Visiwa vya Mariana ya Kaskazini Guam Katika Karibi: Puerto Rico Visiwa vya Virgin vya Marekani Visiwa vidogo sana vya Pasifiki: Kisiwa cha Howland Kisiwa cha Jarvis Atolli ya Johnston Kingman Reef Atolli ya Midway Kisiwa cha Baker Atolli ya Palmyra Kisiwa cha Wake Kisiwa kidogo cha Karibi: Kisiwa cha Navassa
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